The Audiolingual Method 听说法
The Grammar Translation Method语法翻译法
GTM （Grammar Translation Method 语法翻译法）课堂一般使用母语教学，教师的关注点在语法的解释，词汇的形式和变形，文章的语法分析等方面，而几乎不关注发音。因此，语法翻译法的弊端是显而易见的。
ALM (Audiolingual Method 听说法）鼓励教师用外语授课，以对话形式呈现学习材料，几乎没有语法讲解，通过大量录音，语言及视觉教学工具，力求在语境中学习词汇，注重发音，注重学生听和说的能力。
The major characteristics of Grammar Translation Method:
1. Classes are taught in the mother tongue.
2. Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words.
3. Long elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given.
4. Grammar provides the rules for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words.
5. Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early.
6. Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis.
7. Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue.
8. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.
The characteristics of the ALM may be summed up in the following list:
1. New material is presented in dialog form.
2. There is dependence on mimicry, memorization of set phrases and over-learning.
3. Structures are sequenced by means of contrastive analysis and taught one at a time.
4. Structural patterns are taught using repetitive drills.
5. There is little or no grammatical explanation: Grammar is taught by inductive analogy rather than deductive explanation.
6. Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context.
7. There is much use of tapes, language labs, and visual aids.
8. Great importance is attached to pronunciation.
9. Very little use of the mother tongue by teachers is permitted.
10. Successful responses are immediately reinforced.
11. There is a great effort to get students to produce error-free utterances.
12. There is a tendency to manipulate language and disregard content.