SCI发表论文的汉英翻译

XX海外市场拓展可行性研究报告

Report of Feasibility Study on Overseas Market Development of XX

目 录

Table of Contents

1. 摘要Abstract…………………………1

2. 引言 Introduction…………………..2

3.瑞士政治经济文化分析Political, economic and cultural analysis of Switzerland………………………………5

4.比利时政治经济文化分析Political, Economic and Cultural Analysis of Belgium……………………………………8

5.意大利政治经济文化分析Political, Economic and Cultural Analysis of Italy……………………………………….10

6.波兰政治经济文化分析Political, Economic and Cultural Analysis of Poland……………………………………13

7.四国投资环境对比Comparison of Investment Environment among Four Countries…………………………16

8. 市场进入对策 Market Entry Countermeasures……………………20

9. 结论 Conclusion…………………..22

10. 参考References………………….24

Abstract

XX现在是英国领先的高品质天然即食三明治零售商.近年来,全球约有374家门店。虽然大多数商店都在英国(特别是伦敦),但越来越多的商店在海外开业。本文从XX的发展需求,以及企业定位,在国际视野下分析比较了瑞士,比利时,意大利和波兰的经济环境、人文特点和饮食文化以及消费水平,最终帮助XX找到符合市场定位最具发展潜力的海外国家。

As the currently leading retailer of high-quality natural ready-to-eat sandwiches in the UK, XX has developed to have about 374 stores with worldwide coverage in recent years. Despite the fact that most stores are based in the UK (especially in London), the number of overseas stores is on the rise. In this paper, the author analyzes and compares the economic environment, human characteristics, food culture and consumption level of Switzerland, Belgium, Italy and Poland from the international perspective and based on the development needs and corporate orientation of XX, thus finalizing the most potential overseas country in line with the market positioning for XX.

关键词:海外市场,国际营销,XX管理

Key words: Overseas market, international marketing, XX management

Introduction

XX餐厅于1986年在英国伦敦开设第一家门店,其创办人AA和BB是当年的同窗学友,因为两人同样渴望享受到简单而天然的食品,所以决意创新天地,以手工制作新鲜美食,并首创店内厨房,确保食品新鲜。餐厅里所有的食物都不是食品工厂里生产的工业化产品,而是当日在店内制作和供应的。每天清晨 5 点半, XX 的员工就开始为顾客准备全天的 食材,所以 XX 的三明治、沙拉和薄 饼卷虽然都有外包装,却没有保质期,也不添加防腐剂,追求天然且尽可能避免化学添加剂、防腐剂是 XX 一贯坚持的理念。因为XX在性质上属于跨国公司,其在全球其他国家开设有分店。时至今日,除了英国外,XX在美国、法国和香港都不断扩展,全球共有超过370余家分店。

Founded by AA and BB who are former classmates, XX restaurant set up its first store in London, UK in 1986. Inspired by the desire of enjoying simple and natural food, the founders were determined to innovate in making fresh food by hand and initiated in-store kitchen to ensure the freshness of food. All the food in the restaurant is not an industrial product from the food factory, but is made and supplied in the store on the same day. Every morning at 5:30 a.m., XX staff begins to prepare all-day food materials for customers, enabling the absence of shelf life and preservatives for XX sandwiches, salads and pancake rolls with outer packing, and embodying XX’s consistent philosophy of pursuing natural quality and minimizing the use of chemical additives and preservatives. As a multinational corporation in nature, XX has branches in other countries around the world. Today, in addition to developing the market in the UK, XX has expanded to and set foot in the United States, France and Hong Kong, with more than 370 branch stores worldwide.

XX的顾客群体并没有相关文献予以论述。但根据XX在中国上海和中国香港的店铺选址就可窥见一斑,XX去年关闭的位于中国上海的两家门店分别位于静安嘉里中心和国金中心,两地均位于上海黄金地段,附近多以写字楼为主,两地的租金很高,这意味着这两地开设分店成本很高。XX在上海开设分店不顾成本的想要靠近写字楼,其针对的顾客群体可想而知,其顾客群体定位从一开始就不是普通大众,而是商务人士、白领阶层等群体。目前XX在中国香港有27家门店,比较多位于交通中转站和重要商场,这些是作为游客集中会去到的地方,这些游客当中,知道XX的不在少数,这些顾客大比例了解XX的情况,知道怎样点单,也大概了解XX的口味和价格。

Despite the absence of relevant literature, customer group of XX can be evidenced by the location of XX’s stores in Shanghai and Hong Kong, China. Last year, XX closed two stores situated in the prime locations of Shanghai Jing’ an Kerry Center and International Financial Center respectively, surrounded mainly by office buildings, resulting in high rent and indicating high cost of establishing branch stores in such two places. XX sets up branch stores near the office buildings in Shanghai, regardless of the high cost, implying that its initially intended customer group is not general public, but business people, white-collar workers and other groups. At present, XX has 27 stores in Hong Kong, China, mostly of which are located in transit stations and major shopping malls frequented by tourists. Most of these tourists know about XX and its business model as well as the ordering process, and are generally familiar with the taste and price of XX.

2001年,美式快餐店麦当劳曾经入股投资XX在美国的分店,但是前者在2008年卖掉了该批股份。根据相关资料,XX在香港的同行以及对手包括太平洋咖啡、星巴克和Caffee Habitu。从XX在香港市场上的竞争对手来看,我们大致可以推出XX在全球市场上的竞争对手。麦当劳卖掉XX股份可以看出,XX的竞争对手还包括美国麦当劳、肯德基以及汉堡王这类餐饮巨头。不仅如此,XX还需要与英国国内的餐饮COSTA竞争。

In 2001, McDonald’s, an American fast food restaurant, invested to hold shares in XX’s U.S. branch, but sold such shares in 2008. Relevant data shows that XX’s peers and rivals in Hong Kong include Pacific Coffee, Starbucks and Caffefee Habitu, based on which we can roughly infer XX’s competitors in the global market. McDonald’s sale of XX shares indicates that XX rivals with the catering giants such as McDonald’s, KFC and Burger King, in addition to competing with COSTA in the UK.

根据XX的顾客群体,我们可以知道,XX市场定位为中高端市场,因为其面向的消费群体主要是商务人士、白领阶层等群体。从其店铺位置来看,在上海租用黄金地段地块开设分店,与各类大型企业办公区域相近,由此可见其市场定位绝非低端市场,而是中高端市场。

XX is oriented at middle and high-end market, but not low-end market, as evidenced by the fact that it is intended for customer groups such as business people and white-collar workers, and as reflected by its store locations in prime plots in Shanghai, adjacent to office areas of various large-scale enterprises.

瑞士政治经济文化分析

Political, Economic and Cultural Analysis of Switzerland

瑞士联邦简称“瑞士”,位于欧洲中部。1684年瑞士因《威斯特伐利亚和约》而独立,成为真正意义上的主权国家。1848年制定新宪法,设立瑞士联邦委员会,成为统一的联邦制国家。瑞士自1815年以来一直奉行中立政策,并在两次世界大战中保持中立,目前为永久中立国。瑞士虽为永久中立国,但仍然积极参与国际事务,诸如世界贸易组织、国际红十字会等国际组织总部位于瑞士日内瓦。目前瑞士国内政局稳定,政权有力,社会和谐。

Located in central Europe, the Swiss Confederation, or “Switzerland” for short, was independent under the Peace Treaty of Westphalia and became a truly sovereign state in 1684. In 1848, a new constitution was enacted, and the Swiss Federal Council was established, enabling Switzerland to become a unified federal state. Switzerland has pursued a policy of neutrality since 1815, maintained its neutrality during the two world wars, and has been a permanent neutralized state till now. Regardless of its nature as a permanent neutralized state, Switzerland is still actively involved in international affairs, for example, the international organizations such as the World Trade Organization and the International Red Cross are headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Currently, Switzerland features stable domestic political situation, powerful regime and harmonious society.

瑞士是世界上最为稳定的经济体之一,主要体现在政策、金融体系以及银行保密体制等方面。根据2019年4月IMF发布的《世界经济展望》,瑞士2018年DGP总量为7038亿美元,人均GDP为82950,人均GDP排名世界第二。瑞士经济不管是总量还是人均GDP都居于欧洲前列。瑞士还是许多跨国公司总部所在。瑞士制造业是最为重要的产业之一,涵盖了专业化学制品、医药、精密仪器等领域。不仅如此,瑞士国内税率也是发达国家中总税率最低的。瑞士基于低的国内税收,向瑞士进行投资的成本较低,且瑞士国际化程度较高,因而投资环境较好。瑞士农业保护政策为瑞士自由贸易政策的少数例外,也导致食物价格较高,对于经济合作与发展组织报告显示瑞士市场自由度略低于部分欧盟国家,但瑞士国内购买力仍居于世界前列。瑞士旅游业十分发达,是该国第三大创汇行业。

Switzerland is one of the most stable economies in the world, mainly reflected in policy, financial system and bank secrecy system, etc. The World Economic Outlook issued by the IMF in April 2019 showed that Switzerland’s gross DGP in 2018 was 703.8 billion US Dollars, with per capita GDP of 82,950 US Dollars, ranking second in the world. Switzerland is leading in Europe in economy considering gross and per capita GDP, and is also the home to many multinational corporations. Manufacturing industry is one of the most important industries in Switzerland, covering professional chemicals, medicine, precise instruments and other fields. Moreover, Switzerland has the lowest overall tax rate in the developed world. The low domestic tax, low cost of investment and high degree of internationalization create a good investment environment in Switzerland. Switzerland’s agricultural protection policy is a few exceptions to Switzerland’s free trade policy, which also gives rise to higher food prices. The OECD reports show that Switzerland’s market freedom is slightly less than that of some EU countries, but Switzerland’s domestic purchasing power is still leading in the world. The highly developed tourism industry is the third largest source of foreign exchange earnings in Switzerland.

瑞士的文化和自然遗产非常丰富。雄浑的阿尔卑斯山、星罗棋布的高山湖泊、茂密的原始森林,伯尔尼老城、圣加仑修道院、贝林佐纳城堡和城墙等名闻遐迩,其中少女峰、伯尔尼老城、圣加仑修道院、贝林佐纳城堡和城墙等6处文化与自然遗产被列入联合国教科文组织世界遗产名录。瑞士以德语、法语、意大利语和拉丁罗曼语为官方语言,其官方语言中没有英语。因为瑞士由四大语区所组成,在饮食上自然也受到四种不同文化的影响具有多元性,对于外来食物具有一定的兼容性。

Switzerland is rich in cultural and natural heritage, such as the well-known magnificent Alps, scattered alpine lakes, dense virgin forests, Old City of Berne, St. Gallen Abbey, Castle and Wall of Bellinzona, and the six cultural and natural heritages including Jungfrau, the Old City of Berne, the St. Gallen Abbey, and the Castle and Wall of Bellinzona, which are listed in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Switzerland’s official languages include German, French, Italian and Romansh, but exclude English. Because Switzerland is composed of four major language areas, it is naturally influenced by four different cultures in its diet, which enables certain compatibility with foreign food.

比利时政治经济文化分析

Political, Economic and Cultural Analysis of Belgium

比利时王国简称“比利时”。比利时实行三权分立的政治制度,立法、行政、司法三权相互独立、制衡,比利时国王只是国家的象征。比利时于1831制定了首部宪法,1994年制定新宪法。比利时在对外关系上以欧盟为依托,以欧洲一体化为重点,推行积极的欧洲政策。比利时与瑞士在对外关系的处理上有所区别,比利时并不奉行中立政策。

The Kingdom of Belgium is abbreviated as “Belgium”, which implements the political system of “separation of the three powers”. Legislative, administrative and judicial powers are independent and counterbalanced. The King of Belgium is only the symbol of the country. Belgium enacted its first constitution in 1831 and a new one in 1994. Belgium, relying on the European Union in its foreign relations and focusing on European integration, implements active European policies. Belgium is different from Switzerland in dealing with foreign relations, for it does not pursue a policy of neutrality.

2017年,比利时GDP总量约为4827亿美元,人均GDP约为43324美元,位于世界20名左右。比利时是发达的资本主义工业国家,经济对外依赖程度高。比利时主要的工业部门钢铁、机械、有色金属、化工、纺织等行业,但工业部门对外依赖程度高。比利时服务发达,服务业从业人数占到了劳动人口的80%。比利时以贸易立国,因此出口占国内生产总值比重较高,位于全球前20。比利时官方语言为荷兰语、法语和德语,和瑞士一样,英语并非官方语言。比利时信教人口占比较高,且主要信奉天主教。比利时是美食王国,在欧洲久负盛名,虽然比利时人饮食习惯中追求健康自然的要求与同样来自欧洲的美食品牌XX较为投契,但比利时的本土快餐连锁Exki也是主打健康这一主题的快餐品牌。

In 2017, Belgium’s gross GDP was about 482.7 billion US Dollars, and its per capita GDP was about 43,324 US Dollars, ranking about 20th in the world. Belgium is a developed capitalist industrial country with a high degree of external economic dependence. Belgium’s main industrial sectors cover iron and steel, machinery, non-ferrous metals, chemical engineering, textile and other industries, which are highly dependent on foreign countries. Belgium has developed service industry, with 80% of the working population engaged in services. Belgium is based on trade, so its exports account for a high proportion of GDP, which ranks among the top 20 in the world. The official languages of Belgium are Dutch, French and German. Like Switzerland, English is not the official language of Belgium. Belgium has a high proportion of religious population mainly believing in Catholicism. Belgium is a food kingdom and has long been famous in Europe. Although the Belgian dietary habits and the pursuit of health and nature are in line with the European food brand XX, Belgium’s local fast food chain Exki is also a fast food brand centering on the theme of health.

意大利政治经济文化分析

Political, Economic and Cultural Analysis of Italy

意大利共和国简称“意大利”。意大利同英国一样,是一个高度发达的资本主义国家。2018年,意大利政局动荡,意大利重新进行大选。与此同时,意大利国内政党的疑欧情绪高涨,意大利债券市场出现抛售浪潮,债券市场和股市均受到不良影响。意大利是欧洲四大经济体之一,是欧盟的创始会员国。世界银行的数据显示,2017年意大利GDP总量为19350亿美元,人均GDP为31953美元,意大利经济总量在世界排名第27位,经济总量在欧洲排名第四。意大利主要的能源和原材料供给依靠国外,意大利重工业部门涉及钢铁、造船、机械、石油、化工、军火等部门,意大利的火炮就是其重工业发达的标志。不仅如此,意大利的中小企业在经济中占据着重要的地位。意大利的制革、制鞋、纺织、服装、家具、瓷砖、大理石、酿酒等行业在世界出名。意大利在时尚和艺术领域也处于世界领先地位,意大利米兰闻名于世界,米兰国际时装周是世界时装设计和消费的晴雨表,诸如Prada、Gucci著名时装品牌使得意大利在时尚领域占据着世界领先位置。由此可见,意大利是一个对外开放程度较高的国家,国外投资进入意大利的阻力可能较小。

The Republic of Italy, or “Italy” for short, is a highly developed capitalist country like Britain. In 2018, Italy suffered from turbulent political scene, and witnessed another general election. Meanwhile, Euroscepticism runs high among Italy’s domestic parties, giving rise to the tide of sell-offs in Italian bond market, and leaving adverse effect on both the bond market and the stock market. Italy is one of the four major European economies and the founding member of the European Union. According to World Bank data, Italy’s gross GDP in 2017 was 1.9350 trillion US Dollars, with a per capita GDP of 31,953 US Dollars, and with the economic aggregate ranking 27th in the world and 4th in Europe. Italy depends on foreign countries for main energy and raw material supply, and its heavy industry sectors involve steel, shipbuilding, machinery, petroleum, chemical engineering, and munitions, etc. Italian artillery is the symbol of its developed heavy industry. Moreover, Italian SMEs play an important role in the economy, while Italian leather-making, shoe-making, textiles, clothing, furniture, tile, marble, wine and other industries are well known all over the world. Italy is also the world leader in fashion and art, as evidenced by the world famous Milan and Milano Moda Uomo as the barometer of fashion design and consumption in the world. Famous fashion brands such as Prada and Gucci make Italy a worldwide fashion leader. Therefore, Italy is a country with a high degree of openness, lessening foreign investment resistance in Italy.

波兰政治经济文化分析

Political, Economic and Cultural Analysis of Poland

波兰共和国简称“波兰”,位于中欧。从地理位置上看,波兰靠近东欧。波兰于1999年加入北约,2004年加入欧盟,虽然地理位置靠近东欧,但实际上是一个彻底的西方阵营国家。从对外关系上看,波兰采取的是积极的欧洲政策,积极参与欧洲事务。波兰在欧洲并非一个富裕的国家。世界银行数据显示,2017年波兰GDP总量为5248亿美元,人均GDP为13414美元,在欧洲排名第九。虽然其GDP总量在欧洲超过比利时,接近瑞士,但是其人均GDP则大大落后于这两个国家。从这一点可以看出,波兰国内的消费负担能力不及瑞士、比利时和意大利。波兰自1989年实行总统和议会制以来,国内并没有出现太大的波动,因此政局稳定。政局稳定是投资应当考虑的重要因素之一,政局稳定则意味着投资的安全性和稳定性。波兰工业主要集中在重工业领域,国内农产品出口量较大,对于本文所写对象XX而言,农产品丰富意味着成本较低。从成本控制角度讲,可以选择在波兰投资。

The Republic of Poland, or “Poland” for short, is located in Central Europe, and is close to Eastern Europe geographically. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. Although it is geographically close to Eastern Europe, it is actually a thorough Western coalition country. In terms of foreign relations, Poland has adopted an active European policy and actively engaged in European affairs. Poland is not a rich country in Europe. According to World Bank data, Poland’s gross GDP in 2017 was 524.8 billion US Dollars, with a per capita GDP of 13,414 US Dollars, ranking ninth in Europe. Although its GDP in Europe surpasses Belgium’s and approaches Switzerland’s, its per capita GDP lags far behind the latter two countries, which shows that Poland’s domestic consumer affordability is less than Switzerland, Belgium and Italy. Poland has maintained a stable political situation without much volatility since 1989, when the presidential and parliamentary system was implemented. Political stability means the security and stability of investment, thus being one of the important factors to be considered in investment. Polish mainly develops heavy industry, and has large domestic agricultural products export volume. For XX, the research object in this paper, abundant agricultural products mean low cost, which makes investment in Poland feasible from the perspective of cost control.

XX潜在进入国家

Potential Entry Country of XX

本文在分析了上述四个国家之后,认为XX最有可能进入的国家是瑞士,其原因在于:

After analyzing the four countries above, the author considers Switzerland a most likely target country for XX for reasons as follows:

第一,时至今日,创始于英国的XX已经在美国、法国、中国香港开设了分店,中国大陆的两家分店于2018年年底关停。本文认为,XX已经在法国开设了分店,而法国位于西欧,因此从扩大在欧陆的影响力来看,在中欧投资开设分店可能更加合理。所以从地理位置上来讲,在瑞士开设分店更加合理。

First of all, up to now, XX, founded in the UK, has set up branches in the United States, France and Hong Kong, China, with two branch stores in the mainland of China closed at the end of 2018. This paper argues that XX has set up stores in France in Western Europe, and it may be more reasonable to invest in setting up stores in Central Europe in terms of expanding its influence in Europe. To this end, it is more reasonable to set up stores in Switzerland from the geographical point of view.

第二,瑞士经济发展水平高,是世界上最发达的国家之一,其人均GDP位居世界第二。由此可见,对于普通瑞士大众而言,XX的消费也在可以承受的范围之内。从这个角度讲,瑞士大众消费能力强意味着瑞士是具有广阔的市场前景的。一个企业能够在市场上立足,有无市场,有无消费群体是最为重要的因素之一。瑞士国内市场完全满足XX的投资需求。

Secondly, Switzerland has a high level of economic development and is one of the most developed countries worldwide, with its per capita GDP ranking second in the world. Thus, the general Swiss public can afford consumption in XX. From this point of view, Switzerland’s strong consumer capacity indicates broad market prospects in Switzerland. One of the most important factors for an enterprise to keep a foothold in the market is dependable market and reliable consumer group. Switzerland’s domestic market fully meets the investment needs of XX.

第三,瑞士国内政治稳定,社会稳定,具备完善的法律制度,且与各国、各国际组织保持良好的对外关系。一个国家稳定与否在很大程度上能决定这一个国家能否吸引到投资,即使叙利亚有良好的资源禀赋,目前也不会有几个跨国公司愿意在该国投资。一个法制是否健全,法律体系是否完善,法治水平的高低在很大程度上会影响投资者的决定。一个国家对外开放的程度也决定了该国能否吸引到有效的投资,瑞士众多的跨国公司和国际组织足以说明瑞士的开放水平很高。不仅如此,瑞士奉行的永久中立的政策使得瑞士很少会受到其他国家外交政策的影响。因此,瑞士和平的社会环境使得其成为XX的最佳投资地点。

Thirdly, Switzerland has stable political environment and society, has a sound legal system, and maintains good external relations with various countries and international organizations. The stability of a country largely determines whether it can attract investment. Despite the good resource endowment in Syria, few multinational corporations would be willing to invest in the country at the moment. Soundness of legal system, perfection of legal system, and level of the rule of law will affect the decision of investors to a great extent. The openness degree of a country also determines whether it can attract effective investment. Switzerland has a high level of openness as evidenced by its numerous multinational corporations and international organizations. Moreover, Switzerland’s policy of permanent neutrality makes it seldom influenced by foreign policies of other countries. Therefore, Switzerland’s peaceful social environment makes it the best choice for investment of XX.

第四,瑞士是众多跨国公司总部、分部以及国际组织的总部所在地,XX从性质上来讲本身就是跨国公司。瑞士作为跨国公司总部、分部的所在地,在一定出程度上已经形成了一种集聚效应。这会给消费者一种心理上的感觉,即XX能够在瑞士开设分店、设立分部,意味着XX本身的服务能力和水平是极好的。不仅如此,跨国公司和国际组织的工作人员本身就是商务人士或者白领阶层,这符合XX针对的客户群体和市场定位。这类客户群体往往在社会上有较大的影响力,XX完全可以以自己优秀的服务能力赢得他们的口碑。如此以来,借助他们的影响力为自己的打广告也是一种隐形的宣传方式。跨国公司和国际组织能够推进国与国之间的经济文化交流,但承担这一职责的还是其工作人员。这部分人的存在使得XX能够借助他们的力量宣传自己。

Fourthly, Switzerland is home to the headquarters and branches of many multinational corporations and international organizations, suitable for XX as a multinational corporation in nature. As the home to headquarters and branches of multinational corporations, Switzerland has formed a kind of agglomeration effect to a certain extent. This will make consumers psychologically feel that XX can set up stores and branches in Switzerland due to its excellent service ability and level. Moreover, the staff of multinational corporations and international organizations is business people or white-collar workers, which is in line with the customer groups and market positioning of XX. This kind of customer group often has a great influence in society; XX can win their praise with its excellent service ability, thus achieving the invisible propaganda by advertising XX with the influence of such consumer group. Transnational corporations and international organizations can promote economic and cultural exchanges between countries, but it is their staff who undertakes this responsibility. The existence of these people enables XX to use their power to publicize itself.

第五,瑞士完善的金融体系以及银行保密制度使得XX在瑞士承担的金融风险较小。XX如果想在瑞士长远发展下去,离不开金融体系的支持。作为一个跨国公司,XX的战略应该是全球性战略而非针对单个国家。因此,在瑞士的业务应当具有一定的独立性。那么,这一部分业务就应当依靠瑞士的金融体系和银行体系,实现资金的融通。

Fifthly, Switzerland’s perfect financial system and bank secrecy system make XX take less financial risks in Switzerland. For long-term development of XX in Switzerland, the support of the financial system is a necessity. As a multinational company, XX’s strategy should be global rather than individual country-specific. So, the business in Switzerland should be independent to a certain degree, thus enabling this part of business to rely on Switzerland’s financial system and banking system to achieve financing.

第六,英国与瑞士同为欧洲国家,两国在饮食习惯等方面具有相似的地方。诸如两国都以面食为主食,都追求健康的生活饮食方式。XX食谱中有三文治、浓汤、法式面包、沙拉、果汁、奶茶以及奶昔等食物,这与瑞士大众的口味相符。两国在这一点的共性上可以使得XX进入瑞士市场时的阻力变小。

Sixthly, Britain and Switzerland are both European countries, thus they have similar dietary habits. For example, both countries have pasta as their staple food and pursue a healthy diet and life style. XX recipes include sandwiches, pottage, French bread, salad, fruit juice, milk tea and shakes, which are in line with the taste of Swiss people. The similarities between the two countries can reduce the resistance when XX enters the Switzerland market.

市场进入对策

Market Entry Countermeasures

本文认为,XX进入瑞士市场宜采取特许经营的模式。特许经营是指许可证贸易的一种变体,特许权转让方将整个经营系统或服务系统转让给独立的经营者,后者则支付一定金额的特许费。特许经营分为四种类型,分别是单体特许、区域开发特许、二级特许以及代理特许。为了实现XX快速进入瑞士市场的目的,本文认为宜采取代理特许的方式。代理特许的方式是指,特许人授权被特许人招募加盟者。被特许人作为特许人的一个代理服务机构,代表特许人再招募被特许人,为被特许人提供指导、培训、咨询、监督和支持。代理特许给与被特许人以足够大的权力,这一点着重体现在经营权力方面。被特许人在是否开设分店,在何处开设分店,开设多少分店等方面拥有自主决定权,因而能够激发被特许人的活力,灵活经营,实现快速占领市场的目的。

In this paper, the author believes that XX should adopt the franchising mode to set foot in the Switzerland market. Franchising refers to a variation of license trade, in which the franchisor transfers the whole operating system or service system to an independent operator, who pays a certain amount of royalties. Franchising can be divided into four types: unit by unit franchising, area development franchising, sub-franchising and master franchising. In order to realize XX’s fast access to Switzerland market, the author advises to adopt master franchising. Master franchising means that the franchisor authorizes the franchisee to recruit franchisees. As an agency service institution of the franchisor, the franchisee recruits the franchisee on behalf of the franchisor and provides guidance, training, consultation, supervision and support to the franchisee. The master franchising grants enough power to the franchisee, which is mainly reflected in the management power. The franchisee has the right to decide whether to set up a branch, where to set up a branch and how many branches to set up, which thereby stimulates the franchisee’s vitality, flexible operation and achieves the goal of quickly occupying the market.

XX在进入瑞士市场时,应当注重瑞士的实际情况,结合当地实际情况随机应变。作为一个从事餐饮行业的跨国公司,结合当地人的风俗习惯,饮食文化是很有必要的。如同肯德基和麦当劳当初进入中国市场时那样,麦当劳调研后对中国人的饮食习惯误判,最终落后于肯德基。因此,本文认为XX在进入瑞士市场时应当结合当地实际情况,采取正确的方式方法经营。

When XX enters the Switzerland market, it should pay attention to the actual situation of Switzerland and adapt itself to local conditions. As a multinational company engaged in catering industry, it is necessary to combine with the customs of the locals and the food culture. Just like KFC and McDonald’s when they first entered the Chinese market, McDonald’s misjudged the dietary habits of Chinese people after the survey, and finally fell behind KFC. Therefore, this paper argues that XX should adopt the correct mode of business operation when entering the Switzerland market.

Conclusion

英国与瑞士同为欧洲国家,两国在饮食习惯等方面具有相似的地方。诸如两国都以面食为主食,都追求健康的生活饮食方式。XX食谱中有三文治、浓汤、法式面包、沙拉、果汁、奶茶以及奶昔等食物,这与瑞士大众的口味相符。两国在这一点的共性上可以使得XX进入瑞士市场时的阻力变小。瑞士的国民GDP水平较高,人均收入处在世界最高行列,同时有着很低的失业率,国民就有较强的购买力,符合XX的目标消费人群。瑞士旅游业发达,这些游客当中,知道XX的不在少数,这些顾客大比例了解XX的情况,知道怎样点单,也大概了解XX的口味和价格。同时,瑞士农业产值约占国内生产总值的4%,肉类、奶制品等农作物在国内都能达到基本自给或者自给有余,但受当地农业保护政策食物价格较高,对于XX原材料的成本控制会构成一定的影响。

Britain and Switzerland are both European countries with similar dietary habits. For example, both countries have pasta as their staple food and pursue a healthy diet and life style. XX recipes include sandwiches, pottage, French bread, salad, fruit juice, milk tea and shakes, which are in line with the taste of Swiss people. The similarities between these two countries can reduce the resistance when XX enters the Switzerland market. Switzerland features a high level of national GDP, the highest per capita income in the world, a very low unemployment rate, and a strong national purchasing power, meeting the conditions for the target consumers of XX. Switzerland has a highly-developed tourism industry, most of its tourists know about XX and its business model, as well as the ordering process, and they are generally familiar with the taste and price of XX. Besides, Switzerland’s agricultural production value accounts for about 4% of GDP, with meat, dairy products and other crops achieving basic self-sufficiency or self-sufficiency with a surplus domestically. However, the local agricultural protection policy results in high food prices, which will have a certain impact on raw materials cost control of XX.

References

1. Fmprc.gov.cn. (2019).overview of Italy. [online] Available at: https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/ceit/chn/ydlgk/t767294.htm [Accessed 26 Jun, 2019].

2. Fmprc.gov.cn. (2019).overview of Switzerland. [online] Available at: https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/ceit/chn/ydlgk/t767290.htm [Accessed 1 August, 2019].

3. Fmprc.gov.cn. (2019).overview of Poland. [online] Available at: https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/ceit/chn/ydlgk/t767298.htm [Accessed 20 Jan., 2019].

4. Fmprc.gov.cn. (2019).overview of Belgium. [online] Available at: https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/ce/ceit/chn/ydlgk/t767295.htm [Accessed 15 Mar., 2019].

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译者简介

王翻译,拥有15载为数2千万字涉及各大主流翻译领域的海量项目经验。乃国内知名的中英文翻译实战家,中国百家翻译公司公认的优秀译者。自从业至今,凭借先天的语言天赋与后天日日笔耕不辍的实践,以无与伦比的翻译造诣,摘得全球语言翻译企业界为数“四个第一”的桂冠,顺利签约成为国内与国际双料冠军级翻译公司的在线优选译者。

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